II. CONCEPTS IN ASSESSING STUDENT LEARNING; definition of terms

ASSESSMENT 

  • Assessment involves the use of empirical data on student learning to refine programs and improve student learning.  (Assessing Academic Programs in Higher Education by Allen 2004)
  • Assessment is the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences; the process culminates when assessment results are used to improve subsequent learning.  (Learner-Centered Assessment on College Campuses: shifting the focus from teaching to learning by Huba and Freed 2000)
  • Assessment is the systematic basis for making inferences about the learning and development of students.  It is the process of defining, selecting, designing, collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and using information to increase students’ learning and development.  (Assessing Student Learning and Development: A Guide to the Principles, Goals, and Methods of Determining College Outcomes by Erwin 1991)
  • Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development.  (Assessment Essentials: planning, implementing, and improving assessment in higher education by Palomba and Banta 1999)

MEASUREMENT

 – refers to the process of determining or describing the attributes or characteristics of physical objects generally in terms of quantity.

to measure is to apply a standard measuring device to an object, group of objects, events or situatons according to procedure determined by one who is skilled in the use of such device.

Central to any person’s development is learning the skill of learning. Assessing the degree to which an individual is growing across five core abilities that make up the process of learning is key. Those five abilities are:

  1. Reflection
  2. Communication
  3. Critical Thinking
  4. Citizenship
  5. Curiosity

Reflection. Ensuring that students learn how to reflect on what they’re learning both in and outside of the classroom is critical.

Communication. Just as showing your work in a test is often important to accurately scoring that test, the ability to communicate what it is you’ve learned and how it is you’ve reached conclusions is a critical part of the learning process. Students who are capable of effective, age-appropriate communication – both written and verbal – are developing skills they’ll use throughout their lives. Communications is also a vital part of collaboration. Giving students ample opportunity to communicate in class, within collaborative processes, in portfolios or through other means, both documented and undocumented, enable educators to evaluate and score this ability, and to recommend ways in which students can improve communication skills.

Critical Thinking. In order for students to be successful in class and in life, they must learn to be critical thinkers. By allowing for multiple versions of submitted work,

Citizenship. Students need to learn at the earliest age possible that they live within larger contexts. This means they need to develop the ability to leverage what they learn in the classroom in ways that enable them to be active in those contexts while taking responsibility for themselves. Educators can create opportunities for students to show growth in this area both within and outside of the classroom, and to document and present evidence through e-Portfolios, video, photos, PowerPoint decks and in other ways, each of which can be scored and evaluated to recommend pathways for further improvement and growth.

Curiosity. Growth can only come from the desire to pursue unexplored pathways. Therefore, the development of a curious mind is important to learning how to learn.Traditional testing measures what students are memorizing and mastery of the core curriculum. By also evaluating and measuring the degree to which students are mastering learning itself is important so that educators may know how best to support a student and students are better able to self-assess which academic pathways may be best for them.

EVALUATION

Image result for educational evaluation definition

Evaluation is perhaps the most complex and least understood of the terms. Inherent in the idea of evaluation is “value.”

When we evaluate, what we are doing is engaging in some process that is designed to provide information that will help us make a judgment about a given situation.

Generally, any evaluation process requires information about the situation in question.

When we evaluate, we are saying that the process will yield information regarding the worthiness, appropriateness, goodness, validity, legality, etc., of something for which a reliable measurement or assessment has been made.

 “Assessment refers to the collection of data to describe or better understand an issue, measurement is the process of quantifying assessment data, research refers to the use of data for the purpose of describing, predicting, and controlling as a means toward better understanding the phenomena under consideration, and evaluation refers to the comparison of data to a standard for the purpose of judging worth or quality. “

SOURCE: Robert Kizlik & Associates, 2014

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Rachel Shayne A. Besangre

Failure is a great teacher, and I think when you make mistakes and you recover from them and you treat them as valuable learning experiences, then you've got something to share (Steve Harvey) ^______^

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